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How To Read A Hallmark


Reading Silver Hallmarks: A Guide

Reading silver hallmarks can tell you a lot about your silver item, including the purity, where it was assayed, in whose factory it was produced, and the year in which the item was assayed. 

This helpful guide will help you get started with reading your hallmarks. Then if you want a more in depth guide to the marks on your specific piece then we suggest this handy pocket guide: Jackson’s Hallmarks, Pocket edition: English Scottish Irish Silver & Gold Marks From 1300 to the Present Day (affiliate link).

How To Read A Hallmark: The 5-Step Process

Whilst the evolution of silver hallmarks means that sometimes you will need help identifying specific marks and date ranges, this handy 5-step guide will help you to read and understand the basics of silver hallmarking. Read on to the end of the page for a more in-depth history of British hallmarking and links to our guides on different silver items.

Step 1: Locate The Hallmarks

The first step in reading silver hallmarks is to locate the marks on your item. The location of the marks varies from item to item, but there are some general rules. For example, the hallmarks on silver flatware are usually located on the back of the piece, on a flat edge. 

If the hallmark is unclear then you can breathe on it – like you would to produce condensation on a window, and the mark should become a little clearer. 

The hallmarks here comprises (L;R) the makers mark, the lion passant, the London town mark, the London 1935 date letter, and the Jubilee mark. The Jubilee mark was used during 1934 and 1935 to celebrate the Silver Jubilee of George V. It is not a standard mark, but rather narrow the dates quite significantly to 1934 or 1935.
The hallmarks here comprises (L;R) the makers mark, the lion passant, the London town mark, the London 1935 date letter, and the Jubilee mark. The Jubilee mark was used during 1934 and 1935 to celebrate the Silver Jubilee of George V. It is not a standard mark, but rather narrow the dates quite significantly to 1934 or 1935.
The lion passant guardant
The lion passant guardant
The lion passant
The lion passant

 Step 2: The Standard Mark

The standard mark identifies your item as being silver. The mark that indicates sterling silver is called the lion passant. Two variations of this mark have been used throughout history. The first was known as the lion passant guardant, with the lion’s head facing towards the viewer. The modern lion passant, with the lion’s head facing to the left, was introduced in 1822.

You may find that your item does not bear the lion passant, but rather the figure of Britannia, indicating that the item is of 95.83% purity.

 Step 3: The Town Mark 

Now that you know that your item is silver and the purity of your item, it is time to find out where the item was assayed. 

Each assay office (where items are tested for purity and stamped as sterling if they meet the requirements) has its own distinct mark, known as the town mark. The town mark in this example is the leopard’s head mark for London. 

You can look up the most common town marks here

The London town mark
The London town mark
The Birmingham town mark
The Birmingham town mark
1915 date letter 2
1935 date lettter

Step 4: The Date Letter

A common misconception is that the date letter tells us in which year the silver item was made. In fact, it tells us when the item was assayed. Date letters were also used to identify the Touch Warden responsible for the assaying.

Reading date letters requires a pocket hallmark guide, which you can purchase here. Alternatively, online guides are available to help you.

Different assay offices use different date letters, so it is important that you identify the town mark before the date letter. 

In addition to this, the shapes of the shields and the style of the script varies from office to office and year to year, so these marks must be observed very carefully.

Step 5: The Maker’s Mark 

The maker’s mark tells us in whose factory the item was made, as opposed to the specific person that made the item. 

Since 1739 the standard composition of a maker’s mark has been the initials of the maker. Prior to this, the first two letters of the maker’s last name and sometimes objects or devices were used as maker’s marks. 

This website is a great tool for cross-referencing maker’s marks. Once you have ascertained the year of hallmarking, it is much easier to find the maker’s mark, as you have some idea of the period in which the maker was operating.

Again, make sure you are looking closely. Something as small as a slightly slanted letter can mean the difference between one mark and another. 

Some makers marks are stamped as cameos (raised above the background)
Some makers marks are stamped as cameos (raised above the background)
Some makers marks are stamped as intaglios (set into the background)
Some makers marks are stamped as intaglios (set into the background)


What Are Silver Hallmarks? 

Silver hallmarks are used to identify the origins and purity of an item of silver. Silver hallmarks comprise four main elements to tell you this: the town mark, the date letter, the maker’s mark, and the lion passant. During the period between 1784-1890 a duty was placed on gold and silver, leading to the introduction of the duty mark. 

What Do Silver Hallmarks Mean? 

The combination of marks on your silver items mean different things. The lion passant on an item of silver guarantees that the silver is at least 92.5% pure, which is the sterling standard. From 1697 to 1720 the standard was increased to 95.83% pure, also known as Britannia silver. A new mark, the figure of Britannia, was introduced to account for this. The rest of the marks tell you who made it and when.

When Did Silver Hallmarks Start? 

The first record of hallmarks used to regulate purity dates back to 1300, when Edward I decreed that the leopard’s head mark would guarantee sterling silver. Silver hallmarks have changed and evolved many times over the centuries, making some hallmarks difficult to place.

When Are Silver Marks Not Hallmarks?

Some items of silver plate carry marks that look very similar to hallmarks but which do not indicate that the items are silver, marks such as A1 and EP are used on silver plated items. Some silver items made outside the UK have different marks due to different ways of registering silver.

What Affects The Value Of Your Antique Silver?

Macallan Whisky Worth

Type Of Item

One of the main factors that affects the value of your antique silver is the type of object itself.  By its nature most silver is utilitarian, meaning that the form of the items has a distinct purpose.  Tea services, coffee pots, cutlery, candlesticks etc are all examples of items that were made for a specific purpose.  While still commercial, these types of items are seldom collected in large numbers.

Smaller, collectable items such as vesta cases and card cases can be worth much more than larger items such as tea services simply because they can be collected in larger numbers with ease.



As with works of art, all pieces of silver are signed.  Perhaps not by the craftsman that made them, but they all carry a maker’s mark as part of the hallmark.  The maker’s mark will let you know which workshop produced the item.

Items by well know and sought after silversmiths and designers such as Paul Storr, Omar Ramsden, A.E. Jones, Charles Robert Ashbee etc will always command a premium.
You can use this website to find out the maker of your silver.
Sell Antique Silver Mark Littler


Clearly the condition of your antique silver will have an impact on the value.

Dents, bruises and splits are all obvious forms of damage that will impact the value.

Quite often on antique silver you may find that a coat of arms has been removed which can be hard to spot but will also have a big impact on the value.  Likewise, a canteen of silver may have had its owners initials engraved onto each piece.  This can also have a negative impact on the value in some instances.



We have been applying hallmarks to silver since the 14th century and as such they are the oldest form of consumer protection in the world.  

As silver has always been a good ‘store’ of wealth, there are many moments in history where large volumes of antique silver has been melted to fund wars.  As such very little silver remains from the pre-Restoration era (1660).  Most antique silver dates from the 18th and 19th century as this is when silver began to be made in much higher volumes.  

In many cases, the older the item, the higher the value.


Silver or Plate

To put it bluntly, sterling silver items were made for the middle and upper classes.  Silver plate was an invention aimed at making ‘silver’ style items available to the masses.  

If you see the letters EPNS or A1 on your item then it is silver plated.  Your item will need to be hallmarked and carry very specific marks in order to be legally called silver.

As silver plate was made for the mass market many items of silver plate do not have any value.

As such you might be best hanging onto your silver plate for a while longer.



The weight of your item will help us to understand the quality of your silver.  But how?

Silversmiths like Paul Storr produced many items to the same design, but depending on the wealth of their client they would adjust the amount of silver that they would use for the commission.

As such a tea pot may be 500g or it might be 1,300g.  Without being able to handle your items in person, providing the weight will give us a very good idea of the gauge of the silver used and thus we will be able to give you a very good idea of the value.  As ever, the more information you can provide the better.

A History of British Hallmarks 

Henry II is credited with the creation of the Goldsmiths Guild in London, allowing them to use the leopard’s head hallmark in 1180

Henry III made the earliest attempt at regulating the standard and gold and silver in 1238. He passed an order that commended the mayor and the aldermen (a co-opted member of an English county or borough council, next in status to the Mayor) of the City of London to choose six London-based goldsmiths to superintend the craft. This is when the idea of assaying for purity was introduced. 

However, it was not until Edward I that an actual standard for purity was introduced. In 1300 Edward I decreed that the leopard’s head mark would guarantee sterling silver (92.5% silver). Gold had to be at least 19.2 carats. This was enforced by ‘Guardians of the Craft’ who would go from shop to shop in London and assay the pieces produced there, applying the leopard’s head in the pieces met the minimum purity standard. Goldsmiths outside the capital were also expected to adhere to this standard.

The maker’s mark was introduced in 1363 under Edward III and was required alongside the leopard’s head in order to identify the maker. 

In 1423 Edward VI introduced the Quality and Marks of Silver Work Act, requiring every assay office to have its own mark. 

1478 was an important year for hallmarking. The gold standard was lowered to 18ct. The Goldsmith’s Company was made responsible for wares found to be below standard and for the penalties that had to be dealt. This led to an overhaul in the system used for assaying, and the establishment of the first assay office which was overseen by a Common Assayer. The need to differentiate between old and new plate following the change in standard led to the introduction of the crowned leopard’s head mark. A date letter was also introduced. This not only identified the year in which the item was assayed but also identified the Touch Warden responsible. It is thought that the term ‘hallmark’ comes from the use of the Goldsmith’s Hall as the first assay office. 

Lion passant guardant

The Lion Passant Appears

In 1544 the lion passant guardant (head facing towards the viewer) was introduced. No official records explaining its introduction survive. However, it is theorised that it has something to do with Henry VIII’s interference in hallmarking as he sent two of his men into the assay office in this year. The King had been debasing the value of coinage since 1542. He had some kind of issue with the Goldsmith’s Company which was ordered to surrender its charter. However, the King passed away in 1547 before this order could be carried out. The lion passant guardant indicated sterling silver purity for all assay offices. 

The gold standard was raised to 22ct in 1576. 

An Act of Parliament in 1697 changed the silver purity standard from 92.5% to 95.83%. This is known as Britannia silver. Hallmarks in this period comprised the maker’s mark, the figure of Britannia, the lion’s head erased, and the date letter. Throughout this period, gold was stamped with sterling marks through an anomaly. 

By 1720 the sterling standard was restored but Britannia silver remained as an alternative. A tax on silver plate was also introduced during this time, meaning that many goldsmiths went to great lengths to avoid having their pieces properly hallmarked. A duty mark was introduced in 1784 to show that the appropriate duty had been paid for the purity. This mark depicted the king or queen’s head. This was used until 1890

Standardising Maker’s Marks

In 1739 there was a crackdown on the composition of maker’s marks. At various points in history different styles had been used. Prior to 1697, the maker’s mark had consisted of initials or devices. This was changed and maker’s now had to use the first two letters of their last name. The reintroduction of the sterling silver mark led to some confusion over the correct composition of the maker’s marks. All goldsmiths had to destroy their old marks and register new ones at the hall, using their initials and a new style of lettering. It was hoped that this would help to detect counterfeit marks. In 1757, counterfeiting hallmarks became a felony, punishable by death. 

By 1773, the large-scale manufacturing and the increased use of machines for silver production in Birmingham and Sheffield led to calls for assay offices in these cities. This was opposed by the Goldsmith’s Company, but the proposal went ahead thanks to a special inquiry by the House of Commons. 

The Sheffield town mark
The Sheffield town mark
The Birmingham town mark
The Birmingham town mark

In 1786, the sovereign’s head mark changed from facing left to facing right. 

1822 saw changes to existing hallmarks: the leopard’s head lost its crown, and the lion passant was no longer guardant, instead facing to the left. 

In 1844, 22ct gold was finally recognised with marks featuring a crown and the number ‘22’. 

In 1854, 9, 12, and 15ct gold was introduced, indicated by marks denoting their actual fineness, e.g. 375. In 1855, gold wedding rings were made liable for hallmarking for the first time. 

1867 saw the introduction of a mark on imported gold and silver items, an ‘F’ in an oval escutcheon. Marks used to indicate foreign plate changed frequently, making them particularly difficult to recognise. 

In 1890, the tax on silver and gold was withdrawn, and with it the use of the sovereign’s head mark. 

12 and 15ct gold standards were cancelled in 1932 and replaced by 14ct gold. 

During the Second World War the utility mark was introduced, indicating that the fineness of gold wedding rings had been reduced to 9ct and a weight of less than 2dwts. The utility mark also indicated that they had been produced with government authority. 

Creating a streamlined system of legislation spanning many hundreds of years was quite a challenge, but in 1973 Royal Assent was given to a measure that repealed all existing hallmark statutes and consolidated them into a single Act: The Hallmarking Act of 1973. This act came into effect in 1975. This act also introduced hallmarks for platinum, featuring an orb and a cross.

Thomas Nilsson
Thomas Nilsson
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In 1991 I purchased a number edition bottle of Midleton Very Rare whiskey in a box with the certification endorsed by the Master Distiller Barry Crockett whilst visiting Whiskey Corner in Dublin.It was stored in a cupboard until March 2013 when my wife suggested that we had it valued.Having searched on line for a whisky broker two options were presented by the internet one in Dublin and one in Congleton Cheshire. Mark Littler Independent Whisky Broker. From the first contact by phone with their staff members relating to my initial enquiry and the subsequent process of selling the bottle of whiskey they all dealt with the matter with very professionally and kept us fully informed at every stage of the process to achieve finding a buyer in their Online Shop.We personally delivered the Midleton Whiskey to their premises in Congleton in late March 2023 where Beth welcomed us to the very secure and tempreature controlled suite of offices where we met all the members of staff who would be dealing with our sale.My wife and I were handed a very detailed and simple contract of sale which Beth gave us time to read through and explained all the process of how the sale would be conducted by Mark Littler Ltd, and an initial offer price was agreed to commence the sale.In July Beth contacted us to suggest that we include our bottle in a video that was being produced to promote their whisky shop and items available for sale. The video was very professionally made and explained in detail each of the bottles on offer to prospective buyers.The sale of our bottle of Midleton Whiskey was completed in September at the price we had hoped to achieve when it was independently valued.During the whole [process of our dealings with Beth and Katy we kept up to date on the sale process, and the agreed sum of money achieved arrived in our bank account as promised.As valued customers we would fully endorse and recommend Mark Littler Ltd as a trustworthy company to sell your valuable times through either in their shop or at auction.Mr Lawrence and Mrs Par Burrell.Shepperton. Middlesex,
Adam Dziacky
Adam Dziacky
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Nick Hayes
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Sarah Herring
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Marks and Beth were superb during the sale of my whisky bottle. The communication was brilliant and their knowledge is also invaluable. Would 100%... recommend using mark little Ltd. Will be in touch again in the future. Thank you both again for your more
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Mark’s website is very easy to use. We found him informative, helpful and friendly. Selling was easy because of Mark and his staff. Would definitely... recommendread more
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With the daunting task of selling a 17-year old barrel of Bruichladdich Whisky, I turned to Mark Littler in Oct '21. He and his team professionally... led me through the process to successfully achieving a good sale and subsequent payment of proceeds - from another part of the world. I highly recommend Mark Littler and their whisky services! David Brandjesread more
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I highly recommend Mark Littler, who is extremely knowledgeable and went out of his way to help me sell some... more
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They were very professional at every stage of the process and I would recommend them to anyone. I don't often give a five star marking but with Mark... I would, and I would certainly use them more
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When we were unsure about how to go about selling part of our whisky collection, we looked online and found that Mark had some very good... reviews.

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It’s great when you’re in unfamiliar territory, hoping to sell a cask of whisky, and there’s someone out there who leads you through the process in a... thoroughly professional way. Mark kept me informed throughout and successfully completed the deal. I’d recommend him to anyone wishing to more
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We were looking to sell a cask of Bruichladdich which we had owned for 10 years, having read excellent 5 star reviews & watched a couple of YouTube... videos, we decided to contact Mark. From the outset Mark was friendly & professional, offering great advice which allowed us to make an informed decision, at all times Mark communicated clearly & answered any questions promptly. Mark achieved a great price for our cask, I would not hesitate to use his company again so I’m very happy to recommend him with a 5/5 more
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I bought my husband a hogshead of Bowmore for his 30th birthday. We’ve been happily paying warehouse rental for 25 years and decided we needed to... look into next steps. The warehouse wasn’t very helpful so we started to look on the internet for a whisky broker. There appeared to be a lot of choice but Marks credentials and website information stood out from the crowd. He immediately set us at ease and so we looked no further. We have enjoyed our interactions and have felt from the start that Mark had our best interests at heart with his professional approach, transparency and personal touch. He has kept us informed along the journey which has been an exciting one. As part of the service Mark facilitated the gauging, sampling and selling of the barrel and also coordinated for us to receive a few bottles of this amber nectar for our own consumption. To top it off he achieved a fabulous price. We would recommend Mark to anyone who is lucky enough to have whisky to sell. Many thanks for your service Mark!read more
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He completed a sale for me with his... professionalism & personal service & I will happily use him again. Thank you Mark & staff., for a five star service. Lorna Hickmanread more
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I approached Mark Littler about selling my bottle of whisky. I delivered the bottle to their office and was very impressed with their setup. A price... was agreed and the contract was signed. It took about 4 months but a buyer was found and I was kept informed of how the sale was progressing, then on Christmas Eve I received an email saying the sale had been completed and the money was in my account.
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Lee C.
I recently approached Mark Littler Ltd to value and sell a number of bottles of Whisky left to me by my late father.
Account Manager Hannah... Thompson completed the transaction faultlessly throughout. She was quick to establish which were the highly collectable bottles and which I would just have to enjoy drinking. I had a very good idea which bottles would fetch the best price and Hannah confirmed that for me. After putting the bottles to their database of clients, I soon had a best offer which stacked up against other vendors. On accepting the offer a courier delivered all the packing boxes the following day and we dropped everything packed to the post office. Hannah confirmed receipt and a couple of days later Mark called to confirm that he had just sent the proceeds to me - All very painless!
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Working with Mark Littler was awesome. I‘m in the US and he walked me through every step of selling my cask of scotch whiskey in Scotland, and even... went out of his way to deliver a letter in person to the distillery since I couldn’t get ahold of them due to Covid. He made the whole process so simple for me. I would recommend him In a more
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Knowledgeable guy and easy to talk to! Will guide you through every step.

Highly recommend
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